Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Catch-Up Hepatitis A Vaccination Among Unvaccinated/Partially-Vaccinated Children
Hankin-Wei A,Rein D,Hernandez-Romieu A,Kennedy M,Bulkow L,Rosenberg E,Trigg M,Nelson N

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Catch-Up Hepatitis A Vaccination Among Unvaccinated/Partially-Vaccinated Children

Vaccine | June 2016

Background: Since 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination routinely for children aged 12-23 months to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, a substantial proportion of US children are unvaccinated and susceptible to infection. We present results of economic modeling to assess whether a one-time catch-up HepA vaccination recommendation would be cost-effective.

Methods: We developed a Markov model of HAV infection that followed a single cohort from birth through death (birth to age 95 years). The model compared the health and economic outcomes from catch-up vaccination interventions for children at target ages from two through 17 years vs. outcomes resulting from maintaining the current recommendation of routine vaccination at age one year with no catch-up intervention.

Results: Over the lifetime of the cohort, catch-up vaccination would reduce the total number of infections relative to the baseline by 741 while increasing doses of vaccine by 556,989. Catch-up vaccination would increase net costs by $10.2 million, or $2.38 per person. The incremental cost of HepA vaccine catch-up intervention at age 10 years, the midpoint of the ages modeled, was $452,239 per QALY gained. Across age-cohorts, the cost-effectiveness of catch-up vaccination is most favorable at age 12 years, resulting in an Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio of $189,000 per QALY gained.

Conclusions: Given the low baseline of HAV disease incidence achieved by current vaccination recommendations, our economic model suggests that a catch-up vaccination recommendation would be less cost-effective than many other vaccine interventions, and that HepA catch-up vaccination would become cost effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY only when incidence of HAV rises about 5.0 cases per 100,000 population.

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